The Social Giants: the popularity of social networks explained by 2,000 years of research

 

(This blog is the first of fifteen chapters, plus resources, which will initially be published on the BrightLemon web site (http://www.brightlemon.com) and later this year in a single volume as a book, entitled ‘The Social Giants’. ‘The Social Giants’ explains why Facebook and the most popular web sites and social networks are so successful — by drawing upon a wide array of expertise including over 2,000 years of academic research and theory). social web site?

Apart from the search engines most of the top web sites today are Social Networks"

 

A couple of points to note:

  1. Of course, search engines and portals are excluded from this list of top web sites since they are essentially conduits to other web sites.
  2. On the specific point of a web site being "social" I am not referring to integration with other external social networks (although that is of course useful) but social elements within the web site itself. This is what ensures the conversation, usage, recommendations and profiling — and all the user and other stakeholder benefits that accompany these — take place within that particular company or organisation's own online space. A Forrester report from Q4, 2010 emphasises the rise of the community platform and that the majority of Fortune 500 companies have already recognised this trend. [7]

Why is Facebook so Popular?

To begin to answer why Facebook and the largest social networks — which I have christened the "Social Giants" — are the most accessed and most engaging sites on the web, research has been collated in three main areas:

  1. academic research on how people interact in groups, within fields such as social psychology and group behaviour;
  2. statistical data from analytics, metrics, surveys and polls of the relevant users and participants in offline and online communities;
  3. a detailed analysis of the information architecture (IA), user experience (UX) and essentially the functionality and front end of the most influential, popular and largest social networks and online communities (and a number of other top sites)

This three-pronged approach aims to arrive at an explanation for the success of the largest social networks. The following is an overview of the contents of the book explaining the research behind a series of explanations for why the most popular web sites got where they are today:

The Social Giants Contents

Introduction

Part I — Social Psychology A crash course

  • Chapter 1 — Key Figures in Social Psychology — from Socrates to Asabiyaah to Neuroscience.
  • Chapter 2 — Key Case Studies, Experiments and Theories in Social Psychology
  • Chapter 3 — A Summary of Online and Offline Behaviour

Part II — A Brief History of the Web, its Evolution and its Future

  • Chapter 4 — A Brief History of the Web, its Evolution and its Future

Part III — Why is Facebook so popular? An analysis of the Social Giants

  • Chapter 5 — MySpace — the original Social Giant
  • Chapter 6 — Wikipedia — the knowledge Social Giant
  • Chapter 7 — LinkedIn — the business network Social Giant
  • Chapter 8 — YouTube — the video sharing Social Giant
  • Chapter 9 — Flickr — the image sharing Social Giant
  • Chapter 10 — Twitter — the realtime messaging Social Giant
  • Chapter 11 — FourSquare — the location based Social Giant
  • Chapter 12 — Facebook — the online community Social Giant

Part IV — Common Social Giant Patterns and the Future of Social Interaction

  • Chapter 13 — Common trends among the Social Giants
  • Chapter 14 — How other top sites are using Social Giant principles
  • Chapter 15 — The Future of Social Interaction

Part V — Appendices

  • Appendix A — Global Rankings of the Social Giants
  • Appendix B — Glossary of Terms
  • Appendix C — References
  • Appendix D — Index
  • Appendix E — Explanation of Statistics

Why I wrote this book

The single premise, or rather aim, of this book is a simple one — to explain why Facebook and the largest online social networks are so popular. When I first started searching for the answer to this question I expected such a book to already exist — in fact I expected many. Yet (at the time of writing — Christmas 2010) there are none. It is true that the film Social Network (2010) [8], the book that inspired it — the Accidental Billionaires (Ben Mezrich, 2009) [9] and David Kirkpatrick’s The Facebook Effect (2010) [10] explain how Facebook became popular via the founders’ stories — but I wanted to know why. I am fortunate that as part of my undergraduate degree — one of the courses taught in the Management school was entitled “Organisational Behaviour” [11]. The main texts at the time were Robbins 12 and Barron & Greenberg 13 which covered theories such as group formation, team interaction, norms, roles and the theories of Maslow 14, Mayo 15 and Skinner 16. Dusting off these old university textbooks immediately began to penetrate the surface of the question: "Why is Facebook so popular?" by explaining human interaction, group behaviour and similar concepts. This quickly led to a wide range of other authors: including Giddens 17, Hogg 18 & Vaughan 19 and the real field of study of relevance — Social Psychology20. The first three chapters of this book are a quick recap of the major figures and theories of research in this area with particular relevance to group behaviour. In our working life my colleagues and I often research and investigate what makes the largest social networks tick. We do so from some very typical (for a web agency), user-driven, web based methodologies examining usability, user interfaces (UX), Information Architecture (IA), functionality and design. Some of this insight is also included here in later chapters since it is highly relevant. And so this book ties together three things:

  1. the academic research of recent centuries of how humans think and behave and interact;
  2. statistical data from analytics, metrics, surveys and polls of the relevant users and participants in offline and online communities;
  3. a web agency perspective of how existing Social Giants are presenting their windows to the world.

Hopefully this multi-pronged approach goes some way to answering the question. And so firstly in order to understand social networks and online communities we have to look at the academic research and theory that has already been conducted which attempts to explain how people form, and behave in, groups and communities, and how the structures of networks affects communication.


“For without friends no one would choose to live, though he had all other goods..”

Aristotle, 384-322 B.C.

Introduction to the Social Giants

People are social by nature. We interact. We gather together. We do so in couples, in partnerships and in teams. We join groups - large and small. We deduced millennia ago that there is safety in numbers. Ever since we huddled together for warmth and to protect ourselves from the dangers that lurked beyond the cave, we have continued to do so for all manner of reasons: for fun, for work, for power, for war, for peace, for love, but most of all because we are innately social beings. 21 The very basis of our continuously expanding intelligence and what sets us apart from almost all other life — but also connects us so closely to our nearest cousins in the evolutionary chain, the primates — is our level of social interaction. We nurture and take care of our young and old more than any other creatures on earth. We form bonds and ties that last lifetimes. As a result of these social structures we have passed on learning and knowledge from generation to generation — first via (group) storytelling and the spoken word; then via the written word and print; and now — with globalisation and the digital revolution — we have the most vast and diverse set of communications tools online reaching the widest ever audience.22 The World Wide Web, and online social networks in particular, in the main reflect the real world and our inherent behaviour within it. The majority of the social structures and interactions in cyberspace are either a mirror image or a slightly exaggerated version of our offline traits and societal norms.23 So what is it that makes Facebook, and other online community based web sites like it, so popular? What has spawned this phenomenon in such a short space of time? Looking back at the archives of academic research, in the fields of anthropology, sociology and particularly social psychology it is clear that, whether by luck or by design, it is not due to anything new or revolutionary. The success of the largest online social networks is due to something that has been within us since the dawn of time.

Part I - Social Psychology a crash course

Although there are differences, behaviour on the web, in the main, reflects how we behave offline. In order to understand how people interact online we first have to look at the fundamentals in human behaviour — such as how individuals interact one-on-one, within groups (intra-group), between groups (inter-groups) — and then look at the correlations and differences between offline and online behaviour. There are a number of topics that explain why people act in certain ways including:

  • Cognitive psychology and cognitive theories 24
  • Communication and networks of communication 25
  • Personality, traits and attitudes, attribution and roles 26
  • Relationships, attraction 27
  • Social cognition / Social thinking 28

and a number of theories including:

  • Social Identity Theory, 29
  • Attribution Theory, 30
  • Self Perception Theory, 31
  • Self Categorisation Theory, 32
  • Collectivist Theory 33 and a number of others.

Fortunately these topics are all covered by a few main fields of study: Psychology 34 (particularly Social Psychology), Anthropology 35 and Organisational Behaviour 36. Within Part One of this book: Chapter 1 covers a summarised background of relevant philosophical thought and an outline of the key figures in these fields via a simple timeline; Chapter 2 elaborates on the main theories, experiments and case studies; and Chapter 3 summarises the correlations and difference in offline and online behaviour.

Chapter 1 Key Figures in Social Psychology — from Socrates to Asabiyyah to Neuroscience.

The following timeline outlines some of the leading figures in Social Psychology (and Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology, Organisational Behaviour, Philosophy 37 and Linguistics38) who have spent their life's work attempting to explain how people behave and interact. The progression of this area of science started within a Positivist39 based approach — a scientific approach or belief that all truths are absolute and can either by completely proven or disproven also known as "science as a religion" (as opposed to the post modern viewpoint that there are no absolute truths and that the concept of "truth" is only that which is most beneficial to the current powers that be40). Behaviourism41 is a Positivist perspective which states that behaviour can be explained purely by observation, ignoring thoughts behind it. Experimental Social Psychology42 was born at the beginning of the twentieth century with Norman Triplett43 (who would not have considered himself a Social Psychologist) and Wilhelm Wundt44. Other influential figures include Kurt Lewin (Group Dynamics)45, Leon Festinger (Coginitive Dissonance)46, Harold Kelley (Close Relationships)47, Robert Zajonc (Social Facilitation)48 and Albert Bandura (Social Learning Theory)49. In contrast to Behaviourism the modern approach to Social Psychology is more cognitive — it aims to explain behaviour in terms of unseen factors such as thoughts, feelings and cognitions 50. There is a marked difference between the focus of American Social Pscyhology (intra-group) as compared to European Social Psychology (inter-group) supposedly due to the recent history and relative political stability of both regions.51 One of the significant criticisms of Social Psychology is that it is reductionist it nature: it attempts to explain concepts in theories in continuously simpler terms. Explaining behaviour in terms of neuroscience is particularly affected in this way.52 This is discussed further in chapter two.

A Timeline of Social Psychology

The Classical Era of Philosophical Thought

Socrates (469-399 B.C.)

The individual and the state [69]

Plato (427 — 347 B.C.)

Why we form a society, Social Life [70]

Aristotle (384 — 322 B.C.)

Friendship [71]

Epicurus (341 — 270 B.C.)

The human attempt to acheive happiness [72]

1300s

Ibn Khaldun (1332 — 1406)

Authored Muqaddimah (1378) Groups and societies with a strong group feeling were able to dominate and control those without. Theory of social conflict: "Group feeling" or solidarity (Asabiyyah)53

1500s

Machiavelli (1332 — 1406)

The Prince, 1515 [68]

Bacon, Francis (Lord Verulam) (1561 — 1626)

[73]

René Descartes (1596 — 1650)

[74]

Thomas Hobbes (1588 — 1679)

[75]

1600s

Baruch Spinoza (1632 — 1677)

Mind, body and human nature [76]

John Locke (1632 — 1704)

Personal Identity [77]

1700s

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712 — 1778)

The Social Contract [78]

European Enlightenment philosophers (1750 — 1800)

54

1800s

John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)

Utilitarianism and Individual Liberty [79]

Auguste Comte (1798 — 1857)

(Positivist) Coined "social physics" later "Sociology" (during an unstable era — post the French Revolution in 1789)55

Harriet Martineau (1802 — 1876)

Authored Society in America (1837)56

Friedrich Nietzsche (1844 — 1900)

The Herd mentality [80]

Cornell Montgomery (1843 — 1904)

Social Learning Theory pioneer. [201]

Gabriel Tarde (1843 — 1904)

57

1850s

Karl Marx (1818 — 1883)

His ideas contrasted with Comte and Durkheim, Marx focused on class struggle and social change.58

Steinthal and Lazarus

(Folk Psychologists) in 1860 founded a journal devoted to Volkerpsychologie (Folk Psychology)59

Emile Durkheim (1858 — 1917)

French sociologist. The Division of Labour in Society (1893)60

Wilhelm Wundt (1832 — 1920)

Founded the first experimental laboratory of psychology in Liepzig, Germany (1879). One of the founders of modern Empirical Pyschology61

Gustav Le Bon (1841 — 1931)

French Psychologist. Author: The Crowd, a study of the Popular Mind, 1896. Coined the term "Group Mind".62

Norman Triplett (1861 — 1931)

Indiana University Psychologist, devised the theory of Social Facilitation. In 1898, in what is now widely regarded as the first published work on Social Psychology, Triplett noticed that cyclists tend to have faster times when riding in the presence of a counterpart as opposed to riding alone.63

Herbert Spencer (1820 — 1903)

Philosopher. Authored Social Statics, 1851.64

James Mark Baldwin (1861 — 1934)

American social psychologist. Story of the Mind (1898);65

1900s

Ivan Pavlov (1849 — 1936)

Russian physiologist. Conditioned reflex — Pavlov’s dog (1901)66

Max Weber (1864 — 1920)

The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Captialism (1904 — 5), created the concept of the Bureaucracy — all large scale organisations tend to be bureaucratic [81]

George Simmel (1858 — 1918)

German sociologist. Interactionism wrote Soziologie (1908, inc. The Stranger, The Social Boundary, The Sociology of the Senses, The Sociology of Space http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georg_Simmel [82]

William McDougall (1871 — 1931)

(1920) Influenced by Le Bon — authored: Collective Behaviour (1908) dealing with: principle instincts, primary emotions, sentiments, moral conduct, volition, religious conceptions, structure of character (GroupMind) [83]

Edward Alsworth Ross (1866 — 1951)

USA, Social Psychology (1908, 1919) [84]

Paolo Orano (1875 — 1945)

(1902) authored: Psicologica Sociale / Social Pschology [200]

Theodore Vail (1845 —1920)

(1908) Bell Telephone Company, Network Effect / Network Externality [86]

1910s

John Watson (1878 — 1958)

(1920) Little Albert experiment[87]

Christian Ruckmick

(1912) Rapid growth of laboratories devoted to psychological research: from 1890-1910 thirty-one American universities established facilities.[88]

Thomas and Znaniecki

(1918) Defined social psychology as the scientific study of attitudes rather than social behaviour. (1928) Thomas theorem, a theory of sociology: "If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences". (The Chicago School/ Ecological School). [90]

1920s

Floyd Henry Allport (1890 — 1978)

(1924) Social Psychology[91]

Sigmund Freud (1856 — 1939)

(1922) Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego a critique of Le Bon’s work [92]

George Elton Mayo (1880 — 1949)

1924 — Professor of Harvard Business School [93]

1930s

George H Mead (1863 — 1931)

Interactionism [94]

Alfred Schutz (1899 — 1959)

Interactionism [95]

Antonio Gramsci (1891 — 1937)

Marxism [96]

Edmund Husserl (1859 — 1938)

[97]

Jacob Levy Moreno (1889 — 1974)

1930s — coined the phrase "Group Psychotherapy", devised Sociometry, Who Shall Survive (1953) [98]

Murphy and Murphy

Experimental Social Psychology (1931/1937) [99]

Carl Murchison (1887 — 1961)

(1935) Handbook of Social Psychology [100]

Muzafer Sherif (1906 — 1988)

(1935) Norm formation experiment [101]

LaPierre and Farnsworth

(1936) Review of Social Psychology LaPierre (Sociologist) and Farnsworth (Psychologist) [102]

Fritz Jules Roethlisberger (1898 — 1974)

Chair of Organisational Behaviour at Harvard (1977) — 1939 Roethlisberger and Dickson - work productivity influenced by psychological factors (The Hawthorne Experiments)[103]

William J Dickson

Management and the worker — communicated the Hawthorne studies - changing the environment improves performance and arbitrarily motivates staff but later performance plateaus. People being observed behave differently than otherwise. (Illumination experiments 1924 — 1927) (Hucz 285) [104]

1940s

Edward Thorndike (1874 — 1949)

Thorndike's theory of learning (1932) The Fundamentals of Learning[105]

Otto Klineberg (1899 — 1992)

(1938) Social Psychology

Miller and Dollard

1941 — Miller, N. & Dollard, J. (1941). Social Learning and Imitation. Yale University Press. Social Learning Theory (influenced Bandura) [106]

Julian Rotter (1916 — )

(1946)(1945) Published Social Learning and Clinical Psychology [107]

Solomon Asch (1907 — 1996)

(1946) Gestalt-based configural model of impression formation — in forming first impressions we latch on to central traits which play a disproportionate role in our overall/final impression. (Peripheral traits are those which player a lesser part). [108]

Solomon Asch (1907 — 1996)

(1946) Primacy effect — earlier presented information has a disproportionate influence on social cognition (biases in forming opinions). [109]

Talcott Parsons (1902 — 1979)

[110]

Frankfurt School (1930)

[111]

Simone de Beauvoir (1908 — 1986)

[112]

Richard Crutchfield (1912 — 1977)

(1955) Conformity Experiments; Phenomenological approach; Two major determinants of perception, structural factors and functional factors [113]

1950s

Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, Sanford

(1950) Authoritarian personality [114]

Solomon Asch (1907 — 1996)

(1951) Understand individuals based on group interactions. Experiment: group pressure on an individual to conform. (peer pressure/keeping up with the Jones’) [115]

George Caspar Homans (1910 — 1989)

Authored: (1951) The human Group: Group formation — background factors, required and given behaviours, emergent or actual behaviours, outcomes [116]

Kurt Lewin (1890 — 1947)

1943, 1948, 1951 — coined "Group Dynamics" (Lewin was the "father" of experimental Social Psychology). Gestalt psychology — perspective in which the whole influences constituent parts rather than vice versa [117]

Muzafer and Carolyn Sherif

(1953) Looked at intergroup conflict for scarce resources [118]

Howland, Janis, Kelley

(1953) Attitude change programme and propoganda [119]

Julian Rotter (1916 — )

(1954) Social Learning and Clinical Psychology (1954) Prentice-Hall. [120]

Leon Festinger (1919 — 1989)

(student of Lewin) 1954, Festinger and Carlsmith (1957 & 1959) Experiment: cognitive dissonance — a smaller reward can change attitudes more than a larger reward (in contrast to the reinforcement theorists of the time). Cognitive consitency: people try to reduce the inconsistency among their cognitions, because they find the inconsitency unpleasant. Cognitive consitency later fell out of fashion in the 1960s as evidence gathered that people are highly tolerant of cognitive incosistency [121]

Gordon Allport (1897 — 1967)

(1954) The nature of prejudice [122]

Bruner and Tagiuri

(1954) "Implicit personality theories" Idiosynchratic ways of categorising others and explaining their behaviour (also Leyens 1983 and Schneider 1973); Philosophies of human nature (Wrightsman 1964) [123]

George A. Kelly, (1905 — 1967)

(1955) "Personal Constructs" — even within a culture, people form idiosynchratic ways of categorising others. [124]

Human Relations Group (previously Mayo group)

(1957) Human Relations Group at Harvard [125]

Robert Merton (1910 — 2003)

Criticism of Weber’s bureacracy (1957) — "dysfunctions of bureaucracy" — strict written rules and procedures — no creativity, underlying organisational goals plays second fiddle to bureacratic rules, — difficult to address special cases. [126]

Fritz Heider (1896 — 1988)

(1958) Theory of naive psychology[127]

Thibaut and Kelley

(1959) Social exchange and Interpersonal relationships [128]

Noam Chomsky (1928 — )

Chomsky, N. A. (1959), A Review of Skinner's Verbal Behaviour Behaviourism’s inadequacies with explaining human language and communication — required explanations of symbolic representations of the world. [129]

1960s

Deutch and Krauss

(1960) Exchange theory and Interpersonal bargaining [130]

Rensis Likert (1903 — 1981)

Organisations should be viewed as collections of groups rather than individual entities. Overlaps (pins) occur within the various groups. [131]

Lev Vygotsky (1896 — 1934)

(1962) Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory [207]

Stanley Milgram (1933 — 1984)

(1963) Study of destructive obedience — the dilemma when an authority figure instructs an immoral act. Milgram's expirements are widely quoted. [132]

Erving Goffman (1922 — 1982)

[133]

Betty Friedan (1921 — 2006)

[134]

Howard Becker (1928 — )

[135]

Harold Garfinkel (1917 — )

[136]

Norbert Elias (1897 — 1990)

[137]

William Schutz (1925 — 2002)

1958, 1966 - inclusion, control and affection [138]

Wilfred Bion (1897 — 1979)

1961 Group Dynamics and psychoanalysis influences: Wilfred Trotter, Ernest Jones [139]

Bruce Tuckman (1938 — )

1965 - Tuckman’s stages of group development - forming, storming, norming, performing (later adjourning/mourning) (Tuckman and Jensen (1977), Jones (1973) [140]

Robert Zajonc (1923 — 2008)

1966. Social facilitation of dominant and subordinate responses. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 2(2) 1966, 160-168. [141]

Ulric Neisser (1928 — )

1967 Cognitive psychology [142]

Abelson et. al.

1968 Cognitive consistency [143]

Jones & Davis

(Ned Jones — Jones & Davis 1965) Attribution Theory [144]

Darley and Latane

(1968) Prosocial behaviour [145]

1970s

Naive scientist model, building upon attribution theory, people use rational, scientific-like, cause-effect analyses to understand their world. [146]

C. Wright Mills (1916 — 1962)

(1970) Sociological imagination — requires us to remove ourselves from the current day to day existence and look at situations objectively. [147]

Henri Tajfel (Tajfel, Billig, Bundy and Flament) (1971)

Group categorisation was enough to produce intergroup discrimination [148]

Jurgen Habermas (1929 — )

(1929 — ) [149]

Philip Zimbardo (1933 — )

Stanford Prison experiments (1971) — extreme roles and behaviour quickly adopted by guards and prisoners - deindivualisation. [150]

Michael Foucault (1926 — 1984)

[151]

M. Scott Peck

Community stages: — pseduo community, chaos, emptiness, true community [152]

Jones & Goethals

(1972) Recency effect — later presented information has disproportionate influence on social cognition (primacy effects are more common therefore clear implication that first impressions are indeed important) [153]

Jones

1973 [154]

Serge Moscovici

Introduction a la psychologie sociale (1973) — resurrected interest in Durkheim’s work with his idea of social representations. (1961). Also stimulated radical new interpretation of social conformity - minorities can change the attitudes of the majority. e.g. NGOs like Amnesty and small NGOs [155]

Hamilton & Zanna

(1974) A negative impression is much harder to change than a positive one. [156]

Banet

1976 [157]

Albert Bandura

(1977). Social Learning Theory. General Learning Press. (1986), Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory Defined four phases of Social Learning[158]

  1. close contact,
  2. imitation of superiors,
  3. understanding of concepts,
  4. role model behaviour
Theda Skocpol

States and Social Revolutions (1947-) [159]

Tajfel and Fraser

Introducing Social psychology (1978) [160]

Henri Tajfel and Turner

(1979) Social Identity Theory a far reaching new approach to studying intergroup relations - a person’s identity is defined in social terms by belonging to a group. He questioned Sherif’s findings that an objective clash of interests was required for intergroup conflict. [161]

1980s

Sears

(1980) In the absence of information we tend to assume the best of others, forming a positive impression. [162]

Fiske

(1980) However with negative information we form a disproportionately negative impression. [163]

Nisbett and Ross

(1980) Taylor (1981) Cognitive misers People use the least complex or demanding cognitions that are able to produce generally adaptive behaviours. [164]

Pierre Bourdieu (1930 — 2002)

"Social Capital" [165]

Immanuel Wallerstein (1930 — )

[166]

Jean Baudrillard (1929 — 2007)

[167]

Donald Broadbent

(1985) Information processing, Broadbent's Filter Model [168]

Peck, M. Scott. (1936 — 2005)

(1987). The Different Drum: Community-Making and Peace.p. 95-103. [169]

Skowronski & Carlston

(1989) We may be more sensitive to negative information because it is unusual, distinctive or extreme — and therefore more memorable. [170]

1990s

Clegg

(1990) Benetton case study — customised orders based on information received by 5,000 franchisees [171]

Fiske and Taylor

(1991) Motivated Tactition people have multiple cognitive strategies available, which they choose among on the basis of personal goals, motives and needs. [172]

Anthony Giddens (1938 — )

[173]

Ulrich Beck (1944 — )

[174]

Judith Butler (1956 — )

[175]

Vandana Shiva (1952 — )

[176]

Zygmunt Bauman (1925 — )

[177]

Robin Dunbar

(1992). Dunbar’s Number - 150 is the "mean group size" for humans by studying primates [178]

Piaget, Jean (1896 — 1980)

Cognitive Psychology, [179]

Wyer & Gruenfeld

(1995) Information processing [180]

Jon Katzenbach and Douglas Smith

(1993) The Wisdom of Teams Transition from group to team[181]

R. Meredith Belbin

(1996) The coming shape of organisation Belbin's Nine team roles [182]

Burns and Stalker

(1996) Bureaucracy’s effectiveness is limited in industries requiring creativity, innovation and flexibility — cutting edge. Mechanistic vs Organic organisation. [183]

Mario Bunge (1919 —)

(1999) The Sociology-Philosophy Connection. [85]

2000

R. Meredith Belbin

(2000) Beyond the team six differences between a team and group [184]

Manuel Castells

(1942-) The Rise of the Networked Society (1996) - the "network enterprise" is best suited to a global, information economy, the "Internet Galaxy" (2001) [185]

Martin, R., Suls, J., and Wheeler, L.

(2001). Psychology of Social Comparison. [186]

Landers et. al.

(2001) When the human genome was finally mapped in 2003 researchers felt that the 20,000-25,000 genes and 3 billion chemical base pairs making up human DNA were insufficient to account for the massive diversity in human behaviour - therefore context and environment play a signficant role. A final conclusive answer that nurture is as important as nature. (Social Psychology steps in to explain this diversity). [187]

Hewstone and Stoebe

(2001) Introduction to social psychology [188]

Forsyth, D.R.

(2006) Group Dynamics [189]

Aaron V. Cicourel

Cognitive Sociology [190]

Harmon-Jones & Winkleman

(2007) Social Neuroscience - cognitive activity can be monitored via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) [191]

Robert Puttnam (1941 —)

(1995, 2000) "Social Capital" [192]

Derek S. Pugh (1930 — )

London Business School chair of Organisational Behaviour [193]

Peter Drucker (1909 — 2005)

Father of modern management, social ecologist [194]

Fred Edmund Emery & Eric Landsdowne Trist (1909 — 1993)

Topology of organisational environments[195]

Alex Haslam, Stephen Reicher

(2002) BBC2 reality show — the BBC Prison Study.[196]

Stanley Schachter

(Student of Festinger) [197]

Heider and Asch

(1946) Social perception, Social cognition [198]

Thibaut, Kelley, Deutsch

(students of Lewin) [199]


“I don’t care to belong
to any club that will
have me as a member.”

Groucho Marx, 1959.[67]

Next Chapter: Chapter 2 — Key Case Studies, Experiments and Theories in Social Psychology

In the next chapter I shall be looking further into some of the theories, case studies and experiments of Social Psychology summarised above.

Building the Social Web at Social Media Week London

As part of Social Media Week London, 2011, Leon will be presenting excerpts from this book — the Social Giants — at the Building the Social Web event.

References

  • YouTube, http://www.youtube.com

  • Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.com

  • Twitter, http://www.twitter.com

  • Amazon, http://www.amazon.com

  • British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), http://www.bbc.co.uk

  • The Forrester Wave™: Community Platforms, Q4 2010 http://www.forrester.com/rb/Research/wave%26trade%3B_community_platforms,_q4_2010/q/id/57521/t/2

  • Social Network (Film) (David Fincher, 2010), http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1285016/

  • The Accidental Billionaires (Ben Mezrich, 2009), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Accidental_Billionaires

  • The Facebook Effect (David Kirkpatrick, 2010), http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/292952

  • King's College London, School of Management, Organisational Behaviour, http://www.kcl.ac.uk/schools/sspp/mgmt/research/papers/theme/employment/behaviour/

  • Organisational Behaviour. Stephen P. Robbins, 19 May 2006, Prentice Hall.

  • Behaviour in Organisations. Robert Baron & Jerald Greenberg, 25 Nov 2010, Pearson Education.

  • Abraham Harold Maslow (April 1, 1908 — June 8, 1970),
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Maslow
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow%27s_hierarchy_of_needs

  • George Elton Mayo (26 December 1880 — 7 September 1949), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elton_Mayo

  • Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 — August 18, 1990),
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B.F._Skinner,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skinnerian_behaviorism

  • Sociology, 6th Edition. Anthony Giddens, Polity Books,
    1. http://politybooks.com/giddens6/
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthony_Giddens,_Baron_Giddens,

  • Hogg, Social Psychology, Hogg & Vaughan, http://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1405893648/ref=pd_lpo_k2_dp_sr_1?pf_rd_p=103612307&pf_rd_s=lpo-top-stripe&pf_rd_t=201&pf_rd_i=0273686992&pf_rd_m=A3P5ROKL5A1OLE&pf_rd_r=0G5QA60VHT0130EEANED

  • Social Psychology,
    1. http://trinity.edu/~mkearl/socpsy.html
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_psychology_%28psychology%29
    3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_psychology

  • We are social beings. Although this introduction hints at an Evolutionary Social Psychology perspective (how we behave can be explained by traits that favour our survival) which is a more recent proposition, there are numerous sources to cite for this argument from Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, http://www.constitution.org/ari/ethic_08.htm#8.3 through to the present day.

  • Our level of social interaction,
    1. http://www.learning-theories.com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory.html,
    2. http://91-592-722.wiki.uml.edu/file/view/warcraft_social_networking.pdf

  • Traits, norms and online/offline behaviour,
    1. http://corundum.education.wisc.edu/papers/RuTrCD.pdf,
    2. http://www.startup-review.com/blog/facebook-case-study-offline-behavior-drives-online-usage.php,
    3. http://understandingteenagers.com.au/blog/2011/01/teenage-online-behaviour-consistent-with-offline-behaviour/,
    4. http://discoverdigitallife.com/downloads/pdf/Drivers_of_online_behaviour.pdf,
    5. http://www.nielsen-online.com/downloads/nl/MarketIntelligence_MediaPlanning_UK.pdf,
    6. http://www.behavior.net/JOB/

  • Cognitive Psychology explains behaviour in terms of internal mental processes e.g. thought, emotion, etc. (Anderson, 1990; Neisser, 1967) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_psychology

  • Communication and networks of communication
    1. http://www.lse.ac.uk/resources/calendar/courseGuides/PS/2010_PS429.htm,
    2. http://www.socialpsychologyarena.com/social-communication-9781841694283,
    3. http://www.socialpsychologyarena.com/communication-and-social-cognition-9780805853551

  • Personality, traits and attitudes, attribution and roles http://www.nd.edu/~rwilliam/xsoc530/index2.html

  • Relationships, attraction
    1. http://wilderdom.com/psychology/social/introduction/Relationships.html,
    2. http://www.psychwiki.com/wiki/Interpersonal_Attraction

  • Social cognition / Social thinking
    1. http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/soccog/soccog.html,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_cognition,
    3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_cognitive_theory,
    4. http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/s/social_cognition.htm,
    5. http://www.indiana.edu/~soccog/scarch.html,
    6. http://www.psypress.com/social-cognition-9781841694511

  • Social Identity Theory,
    1. http://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/search?index=books&linkCode=qs&keywords=0804753474,
    2. http://www.jstor.org/pss/258189,
    3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_identity,
    4. http://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Interpersonal%20Communication%20and%20Relations/Social_Identity_Theory.doc/,
    5. http://www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/social-identity-theory.html,
    6. http://www.psychexchange.co.uk/glossary/social-identity-theory-421/,
    7. http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/social_identity.htm,
    8. http://www.teambuilding.co.uk/social_identity_theory.html,
    9. http://wat2146.ucr.edu/papers/00a.pdf

  • Attribution Theory,
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attribution_theory,
    2. http://webspace.ship.edu/ambart/Psy_220/attributionol.htm,
    3. http://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Public%20Relations,%20Advertising,%20Marketing%20and%20Consumer%20Behavior/attribution_theory.doc/,
    4. http://tip.psychology.org/weiner.html,
    5. http://www.learning-theories.com/weiners-attribution-theory.html

  • Self Perception Theory,
    1. http://www.blackwellreference.com/public/tocnode?id=g9780631202899_chunk_g978063120289921_ss1-14, http://dbem.ws/SP%20Theory%20Cognitive%20Dissonance.pdf,
    2. http://140.232.1.5/~jlaird/selfperc.html,
    3. http://www.psychwiki.com/wiki/Self-Perception_Theory,
    4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-perception_theory,
    5. http://l3d.cs.colorado.edu/~ctg/classes/lib/cogsci/chomsky.pdf

  • Self Categorisation Theory,
    1. http://www.essex.ac.uk/ecpr/events/generalconference/pisa/papers/PP825.pdf,
    2. http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/1638/1/fulltext.pdf,
    3. http://www.blackwellreference.com/public/tocnode?id=g9780631202899_chunk_g978063120289921_ss1-6,
    4. http://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/wiki/Revision:Turner%27s_Self-Categorisation_Theory,
    5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-categorization_theory

  • Collectivist Theory and Collectivism,
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collectivism,
    2. http://www.sociologyprofessor.com/socialtheories/collectivism.php,
    3. http://aynrandlexicon.com/lexicon/collectivism.html,
    4. http://www.newspeakdictionary.com/go-goldstein.html

  • Psychology,
    1. http://www.intute.ac.uk/psychology/,
    2. http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/psychology,
    3. http://www.psychology.heacademy.ac.uk/,
    4. http://www.psychology.org/,
    5. http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/articles/psychology/what_is_psychology.shtml,
    6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology,

  • Anthropology,
    1. http://www.intute.ac.uk/anthropology/,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthropology,
    3. http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/anthropology,
    4. http://www.theasa.org/publications/monographs.shtml,
    5. http://www.therai.org.uk/,
    6. http://aio.anthropology.org.uk/aiosearch/

  • Organisational Behaviour,
    1. http://www.unesco.org/education/aladin/paldin/pdf/course02/unit_14.pdf,
    2. http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html,
    3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organizational_studies,
    4. http://www.london.edu/facultyandresearch/subjectareas/organisationalbehaviour.html

  • Philosophy,
    1. http://philosophy.eserver.org/texts.htm,
    2. http://www.philosophypages.com/,
    3. http://www.intute.ac.uk/philosophy/,
    4. http://plato.stanford.edu/,
    5. http://www.iep.utm.edu/,
    6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophy,
    7. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=PHI,
    8. http://www.philosophy.ox.ac.uk/

  • Linguistics,
    1. http://www.qaa.ac.uk/academicinfrastructure/benchmark/honours/linguistics.pdf, http://www.intute.ac.uk/linguistics/,
    2. http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/oso/public/linguistics/subject_home.html

  • Positivism,
    1. http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/positvsm.php,
    2. http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/positism.html,
    3. http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/help/mach1.htm,
    4. http://changingminds.org/explanations/research/philosophies/positivism.htm,
    5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Positivism

  • Postmodernism,
    1. http://www.allaboutphilosophy.org/postmodernism.htm,
    2. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/postmodernism/,
    3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Postmodernism,
    4. http://www.colorado.edu/English/courses/ENGL2012Klages/pomo.html,
    5. http://www.infed.org/biblio/b-postmd.htm,
    6. http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/pomo.html

  • Behaviourism,
    1. http://seop.leeds.ac.uk/entries/behaviorism/,
    2. http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/behaviour.htm,
    3. http://www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/behaviourism.html,
    4. http://web.mit.edu/abyrne/www/behaviourism.html,
    5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Behaviorism

  • Experimental Social Psychology,
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_psychology,
    2. http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/622874/description#description,
    3. http://www.humiliationstudies.org/documents/KruglanskiSaysWho.pdf,
    4. http://faculty-gsb.stanford.edu/millerd/docs/2000expsocpsyc.pdf,
    5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Society_of_Experimental_Social_Psychology

  • Norman Triplett (1898) Indiana University Psychologist, Social Facilitation Triplett noticed that cyclists tend to have faster times when riding in the presence of a counterpart as opposed to riding alone.
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Triplett,
    2. http://www.has.vcu.edu/group/trip.htm, http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Triplett/,
    3. http://www.spring.org.uk/2009/06/social-facilitation-how-and-when-audiences-improve-performance.php, http://www.socialpsychology.org/social-figures.htm

  • Wilhelm Wundt,
    1. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/wilhelm-wundt/,
    2. http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/wundtjames.html,
    3. http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/wundt.shtml,
    4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilhelm_Wundt,
    5. http://www.wilhelmwundt.com/

  • Kurt Lewin, Group Dynamics (1943, 1948, 1951) — coined the term "Group Dynamics",
    1. http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/history/lewin.html,
    2. http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/lewin.htm,
    3. http://wilderdom.com/theory/FieldTheory.html,
    4. http://www.a2zpsychology.com/articles/kurt_lewin%27s_change_theory.php,
    5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_Lewin

  • Leon Festinger, Cognitive Dissonance,
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leon_Festinger,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_dissonance,
    3. http://chss2.montclair.edu/klajmang/Courses/SOCI206/Eliot%20Aronson%20Cognitive%20Dissonance%20-%20A%20Review.pdf,
    4. http://www.nap.edu/html/biomems/lfestinger.pdf

  • Harold Kelley et. a.l. Close Relationships (1983),
    1. http://www.socialpsychology.org/teach/cube1.htm,
    2. http://nro-dd.sagepub.com/lp/psycharticles-reg/harold-h-kelley-1921-2003-AJ950bud0I, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harold_Kelley

  • Robert Zajonc, Social Facilitation (1966). Social facilitation of dominant and subordinate responses. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 2(2) 1966, 160-168.
    1. http://zajonc.socialpsychology.org/,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Zajonc,
    3. http://www.lsa.umich.edu/psych/research&labs/berridge/publications/Berridge%202010%20Robert%20Zajonc%20complete%20psychologist%20Emot%20Rev.pdf

  • Albert Bandura, Social Learning Theory Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. General Learning Press. (1986), Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory,
    1. http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/bandura.html, http://www.learning-theories.com/social-learning-theory-bandura.html, http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/bandurabio.html,
    2. http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/bandura.htm,
    3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Bandura

  • Modern cognitive approach to Social Psychology,
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_cognition,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_psychology,
    3. http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Social_Psychology/Cognitive_Social_Psychology,
    4. http://www.stanford.edu/dept/psychology/cgi-bin/drupalm/system/files/A%20social-cognitive%20approach_0.pdf

  • American vs. European Social Psychological approach,

  • Reductionist criticisms of Social Psychology,
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reductionism
    2. http://www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/reductionism-holism.html
    3. http://psychology.uchicago.edu/people/faculty/cacioppo/jtcreprints/bc04b.pdf

  • Ibn Khaldun, Asabiyyah from Muqaddimah http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/ik/Muqaddimah/index.htm

  • European Enlightenment philosophers http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Enlightenment_philosophers

  • August Comte, http://www.6sociologists.20m.com/comte.html

  • Harriet Martineau, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harriet_Martineau

  • Gabriel Tarde, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabriel_Tarde

  • Karl Marx, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/marx/

  • Steinthal and Lazarus, http://www.jstor.org/pss/2709693, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moritz_Lazarus, http://leobaeck.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/2/1/205.pdf

  • Emile Durkheim, http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/socsi/undergraduate/introsoc/durkheim.html, http://www.emile-durkheim.com/, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89mile_Durkheim

  • Wilhelm Wundt, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilhelm_Wundt, http://www.wilhelmwundt.com/

  • Gustav Le Bon, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustave_Le_Bon

  • Norman Triplett, http://kinesiology.boisestate.edu/lphp/Norman%20Triplett%20and%20The%20Dawning%20of%20Sport%20Psychology.pdf

  • Herbert Spencer, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Spencer

  • James Mark Baldwin, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Mark_Baldwin

  • Ivan Pavlov, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivan_Pavlov

  • Telegram sent by Groucho Marx to the Friar's Club of Beverly Hills to which he belonged, as recounted in Groucho and Me (1959), p. 321 "Please accept my resignation. I don’t care to belong to any club that will have me as a member", http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Groucho_Marx

  • Machievelli, The Prince
    1. http://www.constitution.org/mac/prince00.htm,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Prince,
    3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niccol%C3%B2_Machiavelli

  • Socrates,
    1. http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Socratic_method,
    2. http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/1751/Socrates.html,
    3. http://psych.athabascau.ca/html/aupr/history.shtml,
    4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socrates,
    5. http://www.philosophypages.com/ph/socr.htm,
    6. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/socrates/

  • Plato,
    1. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/plato/,
    2. http://www.philosophypages.com/ph/plat.htm,
    3. http://www.iep.utm.edu/plato/,
    4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plato,
    5. http://plato-dialogues.org/plato.htm

  • Aristotle
    1. http://classics.mit.edu/Browse/browse-Aristotle.html
    2. http://www.philosophypages.com/ph/aris.htm
    3. http://www.iep.utm.edu/aristotl/
    4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristotle

  • Epicurus
    1. http://www.epicurus.info/
    2. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/epicurus/
    3. http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/inourtime/greatest_philosopher_epicurus.shtml
    4. http://www.iep.utm.edu/epicur/
    5. http://www.epicurus.net/
    6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epicurus

  • Francis Bacon, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/francis-bacon/

  • René Descartes, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/descartes-works/

  • Thomas Hobbes,
    1. http://www.iep.utm.edu/hobmoral/,
    2. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/hobbes/

  • Baruch Spinoza, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/spinoza/

  • John Locke,
    1. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/locke/,
    2. http://www.philosophypages.com/ph/lock.htm

  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau,
    1. http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/96jun/rousseau.html,
    2. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/rousseau/

  • John Stuart Mill,
    1. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mill/,
    2. http://www.iep.utm.edu/milljs/,
    3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Stuart_Mill

  • Friedrich Nietzsche, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/nietzsche/

  • Max Weber, http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorists/Weber/Whome.htm

  • George Simmel, http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/socsi/undergraduate/introsoc/simmel.html

  • William McDougall, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_McDougall_%28psychologist%29

  • Edward Alsworth Ross, http://www.brocku.ca/MeadProject/Ross/Ross_1919/Ross_1919_toc.html

  • Mario Bunge, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mario_Bunge, http://www.ontology.co/biblio/bungem.htm

  • Theodore Vail, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodore_Newton_Vail

  • John Watson,
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_B._Watson,
    2. http://www.nationalforum.com/Electronic%20Journal%20Volumes/Hart,%20Karen%20E%20A%20Critical%20Analysis%20of%20John%20B%20Watson-Original%20Writing.pdf,
    3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Albert

  • Christian Ruckmick, http://www.brocku.ca/MeadProject/Payne_sundry/Ruckmick_1932.html

  • Otto Klineberg, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_Klineberg

  • Thomas and Znaniecki,
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago_school_%28sociology%29,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._I._Thomas,
    3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_theorem,
    4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florian_Znaniecki

  • Floyd Henry Allport
    1. http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Psych/rwozniak/allport.html
    2. http://www.brocku.ca/MeadProject/inventory5.html#sectA
    3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floyd_Henry_Allport

  • Sigmund Freud,
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigmund_Freud,
    2. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/freud_sigmund.shtml

  • George Elton Mayo, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elton_Mayo

  • George H Mead,
    1. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mead/,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Herbert_Mead

  • Alfred Schutz,
    1. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/schutz/,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Sch%C3%BCtz

  • Antonio Gramsci, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Gramsci

  • Edmund Husserl, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/husserl/

  • Jacob Levy Moreno, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacob_L._Moreno

  • Murphy and Murphy, http://www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/social-psychology.html

  • Murchison, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Murchison

  • Muzafer Sherif, http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/sherif.htm

  • LaPiere and Farnsworth, http://www.deepdyve.com/lp/psycarticles-reg/social-psychology-ZkXB609A43

  • Fritz Jules Roethlisberger, http://oasis.lib.harvard.edu/oasis/deliver/~bak00040

  • William J Dickson, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107924241

  • Thorndike, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Thorndike

  • Miller and Dollard, Social Cognitive Theory, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_cognitive_theory

  • Julian Rotter, http://psych.fullerton.edu/jmearns/rotter.htm

  • Solomon Asch, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solomon_Asch

  • Solomon Asch, Social Conformity http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asch_conformity_experiments

  • Talcott Parsons,
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talcott_Parsons,
    2. http://www.sociologyprofessor.com/socialtheorists/talcottparsons.php

  • Frankfurt School, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frankfurt_School

  • Simone de Beauvoir, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/beauvoir/

  • Krutchfield Social Perception,
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_perception,
    2. http://www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/crutchfield-conformity.html

  • Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, Sanford, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Authoritarian_Personality

  • Solomon Asch, http://www.experiment-resources.com/asch-experiment.html

  • George Caspar Homans, http://www.infed.org/thinkers/george_homans.htm

  • Kurt Lewin, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_Lewin, http://www.a2zpsychology.com/articles/kurt_lewin%27s_change_theory.php

  • Muzafer and Carolyn Sherif, Realistic Conflict Theory, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Realistic_conflict_theory

  • Howland, Janis, Kelley, Attitudes, http://tip.psychology.org/attitude.html

  • Julian Rotter, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Locus_of_control

  • Leon Festinger, http://www.nap.edu/html/biomems/lfestinger.pdf

  • Allport, G.W., Contact Hypothesis http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contact_hypothesis

  • Bruner and Tagiuri, Social Intelligence, http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~kihlstrm/social_intelligence.htm

  • Kelly,
    1. http://www.pcp-net.org/encyclopaedia/pc-theory.html,
    2. http://www.social-psychology.de/cc/click.php?id=39

  • Human Relations Group (previously Mayo group), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Relations_Movement

  • Robert Merton,
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_K._Merton,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-fulfilling_prophecy,

  • Fritz Heider, Attribution Theory, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_Heider

  • Thibaut and Kelley, Social Exchange Theory http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Thibaut

  • Noam Chomsky,
    1. http://www.chomsky.info/,
    2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fOIM1_xOSro,
    3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noam_Chomsky

  • Deutch and Krauss, Interpersonal Bargaining,
    1. http://www.spring.org.uk/2007/10/how-to-avoid-bad-bargain-dont-threaten.php,
    2. http://www.experiment-resources.com/interpersonal-bargaining.html

  • Rensis Likert,
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rensis_Likert,
    2. http://www.change.freeuk.com/learning/business/systems1to4.html

  • Stanley Milgram,
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milgram_experiment,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obedience_to_Authority:_An_Experimental_View

  • Erving Goffman,
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Presentation_of_Self_in_Everyday_Life,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erving_Goffman

  • Betty Friedan, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betty_Friedan

  • Howard Becker, Labelling Theory / Social Reaction Theory,
    1. http://www.leonardbeeghley.com/docs/SYG%206125/Becker,%20whose%20side%20are%20we%20on.pdf,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howard_S._Becker,
    3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labeling_theory

  • Harold Garfinkel, Ethnomethodology,
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnomethodology,
    2. http://www.soc.iastate.edu/sapp/soc401garfinkel.pdf,
    3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harold_Garfinkel,

  • Norbert Elias,
    1. http://www.sociologyprofessor.com/socialtheorists/norbertelias.php,
    2. http://changingminds.org/disciplines/sociology/theorists/elias.htm,
    3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norbert_Elias, http://www.norberteliasfoundation.nl/

  • William Schutz, Communication Theory (FIRO),
    1. http://www.afirstlook.com/archive/firo.cfm?source=archther,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Schutz

  • Wilfred Bion,
    1. http://www.human-nature.com/rmyoung/papers/pap148h.html, http://209.34.253.86/upload/2004_ODN_Conf_Proceedings.pdf,
    2. http://www.nycgrouprelations.org/pdf/TaviPrimer.pdf,
    3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilfred_Bion

  • Bruce Tuckman, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuckman%27s_stages_of_group_development, http://www.infed.org/thinkers/tuckman.htm

  • Ulric Neisser, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulric_Neisser

  • Abelson et. al., http://ebookee.org/Robert-P-Abelson-et-al-Experiments-with-People-Revelations-From-Social-Psychology_219918.html

  • Jones & Davis, Correspondent inference theory, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Correspondent_inference_theory

  • Darley and Latane, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bystander_effect

  • Naive scientist model,
    1. http://www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/social%20cognition.pdf,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falsifiability

  • C. Wright Mills,
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C._Wright_Mills,
    2. http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorists/Mills/

  • Henri Tajfel, Social Identity Theory,
    1. http://www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/social-identity-theory.html,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Tajfel

  • Jurgen Habermas, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/habermas/, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J%C3%BCrgen_Habermas

  • Philip Zimbardo, http://www.zimbardo.com/

  • Michael Foucault, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michel_Foucault

  • M. Scott Peck

  • Jones & Goethals, http://psych.fullerton.edu/mbirnbaum/psych466/ykl/report.htm

  • Jones

  • Serge Moscovici, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serge_Moscovici

  • Hamilton & Zanna, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_Zanna

  • Banet, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Group_dynamics, http://www.cedanet.com/meta/group_process.htm

  • Albert Bandura, Social Learning Theory,
    1. http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/bandura.html,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Bandura

  • Theda Skocpol, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theda_Skocpol

  • Tajfel and Fraser, http://www.libertarian.co.uk/lapubs/psycn/psycn012.pdf

  • Henri Tajfel and Turner, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_identity

  • Robert Sears, http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~siegler/35grusec92.pdf,

  • Fiske, http://beta.in-mind.org/node/249, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Susan_Fiske, http://fiske.socialpsychology.org/

  • Nisbett and Ross,
    1. http://faculty.babson.edu/krollag/org_site/soc_psych/nisbett_hum_infer.html,
    2. http://faculty.babson.edu/krollag/org_site/soc_psych/ross_pers_sit.html,
    3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lee_Ross,

  • Pierre Bourdieu,
    1. http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/bourd.htm,
    2. http://www.sociologyprofessor.com/socialtheorists/pierrebourdieu.php,
    3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Bourdieu

  • Immanuel Wallerstein,
    1. http://www.iwallerstein.com/,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immanuel_Wallerstein

  • Jean Baudrillard,
    1. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/baudrillard/,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Baudrillard

  • Donald Broadbent,
    1. http://generallythinking.com/research/broadbent-1957-a-mechanical-model-for-human-attention-and-immediate-memory/,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Broadbent

  • Peck, M. Scott.

  • Skowronski & Carlston, http://www.soton.ac.uk/~crsi/The_self.pdf

  • Clegg

  • Fiske and Taylor,
    1. http://www.psychwiki.com/wiki/Cognitive_Miser,
    2. http://www.socialpsychology.org/teach/taylorfiske.htm,

  • Anthony Giddens,
    1. http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/events/reith_99/,
    2. http://www.guardian.co.uk/profile/anthonygiddens,
    3. http://www.lse.ac.uk/Depts/global/stafflordgiddens.htm,
    4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthony_Giddens,_Baron_Giddens
    5. http://politybooks.com/giddens6/

  • Ulrich Beck,
    1. http://www.guardian.co.uk/profile/ulrichbeck,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulrich_Beck

  • Judith Butler,
    1. http://rhetoric.berkeley.edu/faculty_bios/judith_butler.html,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judith_Butler

  • Vandana Shiva,
    1. http://www.vandanashiva.org/,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vandana_Shiva

  • Zygmunt Bauman,
    1. http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2003/apr/05/society,
    2. http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2007/apr/28/academicexperts.highereducation,
    3. http://www.culturewars.org.uk/2004-02/identity.htm,

  • Robin Dunbar,
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robin_Dunbar,
    2. http://www.isca.ox.ac.uk/about-us/staff/academic/prof-robin-dunbar/,

  • Jean Piaget,
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget,
    2. http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm,

  • Wyer & Gruenfeld, http://regionalworkbench.org/sequence_09-07/files/Interviews/Schwarz%20Logic%20of%20Conversation.pdf

  • Jon Katzenbach and Douglas Smith,
    1. http://www.douglasksmith.com/,
    2. http://www.douglasksmith.com/wisdomofteams.htm,
    3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jon_Katzenbach

  • R. Meredith Belbin, http://www.belbin.com/rte.asp?id=5

  • Burns and Stalker,
    1. http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_burns_mechanistic_organic_systems.html,
    2. http://www.bola.biz/culture/burns.html,

  • R. Meredith Belbin,
    1. http://www.belbin.com/,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meredith_Belbin,
    3. http://www.librarything.com/author/belbinrmeredith

  • Manuel Castells,
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_Castells,
    2. http://www.manuelcastells.info/en/,
    3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vDh7eGJwhwg,
    4. http://www.geof.net/research/2005/castells-network-society

  • Martin, R., Suls, J., and Wheeler, L.,
    1. http://wheeler.socialpsychology.org/,
    2. http://suls.socialpsychology.org/,

  • Landers et. al., http://www.jeffstanden.net/Sport.htm

  • Hewstone and Stoebe, http://hewstone.socialpsychology.org/,

  • Forsyth, D.R., http://www.springerlink.com/content/n411p2514766327j/

  • Aaron V. Cicourel,
    1. http://sociology.ucsd.edu/faculty/bio/cicourel.shtml,
    2. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.an.14.100185.001111?journalCode=anthro

  • Harmon-Jones & Winkleman, http://cmapspublic2.ihmc.us/rid%3D1207228817342_1390637911_7833/Goleman-%2520Socially%2520Intelligent%2520Leader.pdf

  • Robert Puttnam,
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_D._Putnam, http://ezinearticles.com/?Multiculturalism,-Culturism,-Diversity-and-Dr.-Putnam&id=932992,
    2. http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2007/jul/18/communities.guardiansocietysupplement,

  • Derek S. Pugh, http://www.uk.sagepub.com/authorDetails.nav?contribId=524317

  • Peter Drucker, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Drucker, http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_48/b3961001.htm

  • Fred Edmund Emery & Eric Landsdowne Trist, http://www.univ-paris13.fr/eufms/images/stories/Documents/th_des_organisations_2.pdf (in French)

  • Alex Haslam, Stephen Reicher, http://www.bbcprisonstudy.org/index.php?p=11

  • Stanley Schachter, http://www.columbia.edu/cu/record/23/02/29.html

  • Heider (1946) Asch (1946), http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~read/Published%20papers/Simon,Snow,ReadJPSP.pdf

  • Thibaut, Kelley, Deutsch, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_exchange_theory

  • Orano, http://elendil.univ-lyon2.fr/psycho2/IMG/pdf/Doise_societal_psychology.pdf

  • Cornell Montgomery, Social Learning Theory, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_learning_theory

  • Malcolm Gladwell (2000) The Tipping Point, http://www.gladwell.com/tippingpoint/index.html, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Tipping_Point

  • Chris Anderson (2006) The Longer, Long Tail, http://www.longtail.com/about.html

  • Chris Anderson (2009) Free, http://www.wired.com/techbiz/it/magazine/16-03/ff_free

  • Martin Lindstrom (2008) Buyology, http://www.martinlindstrom.com/index.php/cmsid__buyology_about

  • Michael Foley (2010) The Age of Absurdity, http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2010/feb/21/the-age-of-absurdity-foley

  • The Social Giants — why Facebook and the social networks are so popular, explained by over 2,000 years of academic research and theory. Cover Illustration by Noodoll Studios (http://www.noodoll.com)

  • Lev_Vygotsky,
    1. http://www.learning-theories.com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory.html,
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lev_Vygotsky
  • First Published in Great Britain by BrightLemon Ltd, 2010. Copyright © 2010 by Leon Tong This content is copyright under the Berne Convention. No reproduction without permission. All rights reserved. The right of Leon Tong to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1998. Published by: BrightLemon Ltd., Units 8 and 12, Zeus House, 16 – 30 Provost Street, London N1 7NG, http://www.brightlemon.com