Social Pscyhology, Groupology and online community

Groupology Timeline

In our work building online communities and social software at BrightLemon, the question I am most frequently trying to answer is:

“What is it that persuades the largest number of people to do something meaningful?”

Answering this question is the primary aim of a field we have christened “Groupology”. Groupology is — simply put — the study of groups.

From this starting point follow questions of wider application such as:

  • “How is the group persuaded to do something above and beyond the norm?”,
  • “What factors create the most successful teams?”,
  • “How is group conflict exacerbated and resolved?”,
  • “How does digital influence group behaviour?” and
  • “What is the future of the global community?”

Groupology brings together related fields of study including: social psychology, rhetoric, sociology, evolutionary biology, cognitive & behavioural psychology, online community and organisational behaviour.

Groupology Timeline

The following is a timeline of Groupology and online community. Theories and experiments are in bold; publications are in italics.

469 — 399 BCE      Socrates — In Plato’s Republic (380 BCE) : the individual and the state
427 — 347 BCE      Plato  — Why we form a society; Social life
384 — 322 BCE      Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics (350 BCE) . On Friendship; Rhetoric (367 BCE).
341 — 270 BCE      Epicurus — On Nature [5].

1332 — 1406      Ibn Khaldun  — Muqaddimah (1378) "Group feeling" or Asabiyyah.
1469 — 1527      Niccolo Machiavelli  The Prince (1515).
1588 — 1679      Thomas Hobbes — Leviathan (1651)
1632 — 1677      Baruch Spinoza — Mind, body and human nature
1632 — 1704      John Locke — Personal Identity
1712 — 1778      Jean-Jacques Rousseau — The Social Contract (1762)
1723 — 1816      Adam Ferguson  —  History of Civil Society (1767)
1806 — 1873      John Stuart Mill —  Utilitarianism and Individual Liberty
1798 — 1857      Auguste Comte — Coined "social physics" later "Sociology"
1802 — 1876      Harriet Martineau — Authored Society in America (1837).
1844 — 1900      Friedrich Nietzsche — The Herd mentality

1843 — 1904      Gabriel Tarde — Social Laws — an Outline of Sociology (1899).
1818 — 1883      Karl Marx — Contrasting Comte: focused on class struggle and social change.
1824 — 1903      Steinthal & Lazarus —  Founded journal devoted to Volkerpsychologie (Folk Psychology) (1860)
1858 — 1917      Emile Durkheim The Division of Labour in Society (1893).
1832 — 1920      Wilhelm Wundt — First experimental laboratory of psychology in Liepzig (1879).
1841 — 1931      Gustav Le Bon — The Crowd, a study of the Popular Mind (1896). "Group Mind".
1861 — 1931      Norman Triplett — Theory of Social Facilitation (1898).
1820 — 1903      Herbert Spencer Social Statics (1851).
1861 — 1934      James Mark Baldwin Story of the Mind (1898).

1849 — 1936      Ivan Pavlov —Conditioned reflex — Pavlov’s dog (1901)
1864 — 1920      Max Weber — The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Captialism (1905). Bureaucracy.
1858 — 1918      George Simmel — Interactionism. Soziologie (1908)
1871 — 1938      William McDougall — Collective Behaviour (1908) GroupMind.

1866 — 1951      Edward Alsworth Ross Social Psychology (1908)
1871 — 1938      Theodore Vail — Network Effect / Network Externality (1910)
1890 — 1978      Floyd Henry Allport — Social Psychology (1924)
1856 — 1939      Sigmund Freud — Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego (1922)
1880 — 1949      George Elton Mayo — Professor of Harvard Business Schoool
1863 — 1931      George H Mead —  Mind, Self and Society (1934). Symbolic Interactionism.
1899 — 1959      Alfred Schutz — Interactionism
1891 — 1937      Antonio Gramsci — The Prison Notebooks (1929 — 1935)
1859 — 1938      Edmund Husserl — Founder of Phenomenology
1889 — 1974      Jacob  Moreno — Coined “Group Psychotherapy”, devised Sociometry.
1887 — 1961      Carl Murchison — Handbook of social psychology (1935)

1906 — 1988      Muzafer Sherif — Norm formation experiment (1935)
1899 — 1986      LaPiere & Farnsworth — Attitudes vs. Actions (Social Forces, 1934);
1896 — 1980      Jean Piaget — Cognitive Psychology (1936)
1898 — 1974      Roethlisberger & Dickson— Management and the worker (1939).
1874 — 1949      Edward Thorndike Theory of Learning
1900 — 1980      Miller & Dollard —Social Learning and Imitation (1941).
1907 — 1996      Solomon Asch — Gestalt-based configural model of impression formation (1946)
1907 — 1996      Solomon Asch — Primacy effect (1946).

1902 — 1979      Talcott Parsons — Action theory
1907 — 1996      Solomon Asch — Social Conformity experiments (1951)
1910 — 1989      George Homans — The Human Group (1951). Group formation.
1890 — 1947      Kurt Lewin — Coined “Group Dynamics”, Gestalt psychology.
1906 — 1988      Muzafer Sherif — Looked at intergroup conflict for scarce resources (1953)
1912 — 1961      Carl Hovland — Attitude change programme
1916 — 2014      Julian Rotter — Social Learning and Clinical Psychology (1954)
1919 — 1989      Leon FestingerSocial Comparison theory. Cognitive dissonance.

1897 — 1967      Gordon Allport — Trait Theory
1920 — 2011      Bruner & Tagiuri — Implicit personality theory. Philosophies of human nature (1954)
1905 — 1967      George Kelly — Personal construct theory (1955)
1910 — 2003      Robert Merton — Criticism of Weber’s bureacracy (1957) - “dysfunctions of bureaucracy”
1896 — 1988      Fritz Heider — Theory of naive psychology. The Psychology of interpersonal relations (1958).
1921 — 2003      Thibaut & Kelley — Social exchange and interpersonal relationships (1959)
1928 —                Noam Chomsky — A Review of Skinner's Verbal Behavior (1959)
1920 —                Deutch & Krauss — Exchange theory and Interpersonal bargaining (1960)
1903 — 1981      Rensis Likert — Organisations are collections of groups rather than individual entities(1961).

1933 — 1984      Stanley Milgram Study of Destructive Obedience (1963). Six degrees of separation.
1922 — 1982      Erving GoffmanSymbolic interation
1928 —                Howard Becker Outsiders (1963)
1917 —  2011     Harold Garfinkel —  Ethnomethodology
1897 — 1990      Norbert Elias — Civilising and Decivilising processes
1925 — 2002      William Schutz — Iinclusion, control and affection (1958, 1966)
1897 — 1979      Wilfred Bion — Group Dynamics (1961) and psychoanalysis influences: Wilfred Trotter, Ernest Jones
1938 —                Bruce Tuckman — Tuckman’s stages of group development (1965)
1923 — 2008      Robert Zajonc — Social facilitation of dominant and subordinate responses (1966)

1928 — 2012      Ulric Neisser — Cognitive psychology (1967)
1947 —                Abelson et. al.— Cognitive consistency (1968)
1927 — 1993      Jones &Davis —  Attribution theory (1965)
1929 —                 Darley & Latane — Prosocial behaviour (1968)
1952 —                 Fiske & Taylor — Naive scientist model
1916 — 1962      C. Wright Mills — Sociological imagination (1970)
1919 — 1982      Henri Tajfel — Group categorisation was enough to produce intergroup discrimination(1971)
1929 —                Jurgen Habermans — Communicative rationality

1933 —                 Philip Zimbardo — Stanford Prison experiments (1971) — Deindivualisation
1926 — 1984       Michael Foucault
1926 — 1984       M. Scott Peck — Community stages
1927 — 1993       Jones & Goethals — Primacy effect and Recency effect (1973)
1927 —                 Serge Moscovici — Introduction a la psychologie sociale (1973) — social representations. (1961).
1925 —                 Albert Bandura — Social Learning Theory (1977). Social Foundations of Thought and Action (1986)
1947 —                 Theda Skocpol — States and Social Revolutions (1947)
1919 — 1982      Tajfel & Fraser — Introducing Social psychology (1978)
1919 — 1982      Tajfel & Turner — Social Identity Theory (1979)
1941 —                 Nisbett & Ross — Cognitive misers
1930 — 2002      Pierre Bourdieu — "Social Capital"
1930 —                 Immanuel Wallerstein The modern world system
1929 — 2007      Jean BaudrillardThe Consumer Society (1970)

1926 — 1993      Donald Broadbent — Information processing (1985). Filter model of attention.
1936 — 2005      M. Scott Peck — The Different Drum: Community-Making and Peace (1987).

1952 —                 Fiske & Taylor — Motivated Tactition (1991)
1938 —                 Anthony Giddens
1944 —                 Ulrich Beck — Risk society
1925 —                 Zygmunt Bauman  Social stratification
1947 —                 Robin Dunbar — Dunbar’s Number (1992).
                               J.R. Katzenbach & Smith The Wisdom of Teams (1993)  Transition from group to team

1926 —                 R. Meredith Belbin The coming shape of organisation (1996).  Belbin's Nine team roles
1913 — 2001       Burns & Stalker —  Mechanistic vs Organic organisation (1996).
1926 —                 R. Meredith Belbin —  Beyond the team (2000). 6 differences between a team and group
1942 —                 Manuel Castells — The Rise of the Networked Society (1996)

Martin, Suls, & Wheeler — Psychology of Social Comparison (2001).
Donelson Forsyth — Group Dynamics (2006)
Aaron V. Cicourel  — Cognitive Sociology (1974)
Harmon-Jones & Winkleman Social Neuroscience (2007) 


1909 — 2005        Peter Drucker — Father of modern management
1909 — 1993        Fred Emery & Eric Trist — Topology of organisational environments
1943 —                  Mark Granovetter — The Strength of weak ties (1973)

 

 

 

References

  1. Plato. The Republic (360 BCE)

  2. Khaldun, Ibn. Muqaddimah (1378)

  3. Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince (1515)

  4. Ferguson, Adam. An Essay on the History of Civil Society (1767)

  5. Zajonc, Robert B. & Sales, Stephen M. Social Facilitation of Dominant and Subordinate Responses. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 2, (1966). pp 160-168

  6. Belbin, R Meredith. Beyond The Team (Butterworth Heinemann, 2000)

  7. Granovetter, Mark S. The Strength of Weak Ties. The Americal Journal of Sociology, Vol. 78, No.6. (May, 1973) pp 1360-1380