Social Pscyhology, Groupology and Online Community

by Leon Tong
 

In our work building social software, the question I am most frequently trying to answer is:“What is it that persuades the largest number of people to do something meaningful?”

 

Answering this question is the primary aim of a field we have christened “Groupology”. Groupology is—simply put—the study of groups.

 

From this starting point follow questions of wider application such as:

  • “How is the group persuaded to do something above and beyond the norm?”,
  • “What factors create the most successful teams?”,
  • “How is group conflict exacerbated and resolved?”,
  • “How does digital influence group behaviour?” and
  • “What is the future of the global community?”

 

Groupology brings together related fields of study including social psychology, rhetoric, sociology, evolutionary biology, cognitive & behavioural psychology, online community and organisational behaviour.

 

Groupology Timeline

 

The following is a timeline of Groupology and online community. Theories and experiments are in bold; publications are in italics.

469 — 399 BCE  Socrates — In Plato’s Republic (380 BCE): the individual and the state

427 — 347 BCE  Plato  — Why we form a society; Social life

384 — 322 BCE  Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics (350 BCE). On Friendship; Rhetoric (367 BCE).

341 — 270 BCE  Epicurus On Nature.

1332 — 1406  Ibn Khaldun  — Muqaddimah (1378) “Group feeling” or Asabiyyah.

1469 — 1527   Niccolo Machiavelli  The Prince (1515).

1588 — 1679  Thomas Hobbes Leviathan (1651)

1632 — 1677  Baruch Spinoza — Mind, body and human nature

1632 — 1704  John Locke — Personal Identity

1712 — 1778  Jean-Jacques Rousseau — The Social Contract (1762)

1723 — 1816  Adam Ferguson  —  History of Civil Society (1767)

1806 — 1873  John Stuart Mill —  Utilitarianism and Individual Liberty

1798 — 1857  Auguste Comte — Coined “social physics” later “Sociology

1802 — 1876  Harriet Martineau — Authored Society in America (1837).

1844 — 1900  Friedrich Nietzsche — The Herd mentality

1843 — 1904  Gabriel Tarde — Social Laws — an Outline of Sociology (1899).

1818 — 1883  Karl Marx Contrasting Comte: focused on class struggle and social change.

1824 — 1903  Steinthal & Lazarus —  Founded journal devoted to Volkerpsychologie (Folk Psychology) (1860)

1858 — 1917  Emile Durkheim The Division of Labour in Society (1893).

1832 — 1920  Wilhelm WundtFirst experimental laboratory of psychology in Liepzig (1879).

1841 — 1931  Gustav Le Bon The Crowd, a study of the Popular Mind (1896). “Group Mind”.

1861 — 1931  Norman Triplett — Theory of Social Facilitation (1898).

1820 — 1903  Herbert Spencer Social Statics (1851).

1861 — 1934  James Mark Baldwin Story of the Mind (1898).

1849 — 1936  Ivan Pavlov —Conditioned reflex — Pavlov’s dog (1901)

1864 — 1920  Max WeberThe Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Captialism (1905). Bureaucracy.

1858 — 1918  George SimmelInteractionism. Soziologie (1908)

1871 — 1938  William McDougall — Collective Behaviour (1908) GroupMind.

1866 — 1951  Edward Alsworth Ross Social Psychology (1908)

1871 — 1938  Theodore Vail — Network Effect / Network Externality (1910)

1890 — 1978  Floyd Henry Allport Social Psychology (1924)

1856 — 1939  Sigmund FreudGroup Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego (1922)

1880 — 1949  George Elton Mayo — Professor of Harvard Business Schoool

1863 — 1931  George H Mead —  Mind, Self and Society (1934). Symbolic Interactionism.

1899 — 1959  Alfred Schutz — Interactionism

1891 — 1937  Antonio Gramsci The Prison Notebooks (1929 — 1935)

1859 — 1938  Edmund Husserl — Founder of Phenomenology

1889 — 1974  Jacob  MorenoCoined “Group Psychotherapy”, devised Sociometry.

1887 — 1961  Carl MurchisonHandbook of social psychology (1935)

1906 — 1988  Muzafer Sherif — Norm formation experiment (1935)

1899 — 1986  LaPiere & Farnsworth — Attitudes vs. Actions (Social Forces, 1934);

1896 — 1980  Jean Piaget Cognitive Psychology (1936)

1898 — 1974  Roethlisberger & Dickson— Management and the worker (1939).

1874 — 1949  Edward Thorndike Theory of Learning

1900 — 1980  Miller & DollardSocial Learning and Imitation (1941).

1907 — 1996  Solomon AschGestalt-based configural model of impression formation (1946)

1907 — 1996  Solomon Asch — Primacy effect (1946).

1902 — 1979  Talcott Parsons — Action theory

1907 — 1996  Solomon Asch — Social Conformity experiments (1951)

1910 — 1989  George HomansThe Human Group (1951). Group formation.

1890 — 1947  Kurt LewinCoined “Group Dynamics”, Gestalt psychology.

1906 — 1988  Muzafer SherifLooked at intergroup conflict for scarce resources (1953)

1912 — 1961  Carl Hovland — Attitude change programme

1916 — 2014  Julian RotterSocial Learning and Clinical Psychology (1954)

1919 — 1989  Leon FestingerSocial Comparison theory. Cognitive dissonance.

1897 — 1967  Gordon Allport — Trait Theory

1920 — 2011  Bruner & Tagiuri — Implicit personality theory. Philosophies of human nature (1954)

1905 — 1967  George Kelly — Personal construct theory (1955)

1910 — 2003  Robert MertonCriticism of Weber’s bureacracy (1957) – “dysfunctions of bureaucracy”

1896 — 1988  Fritz HeiderTheory of naive psychology. The Psychology of interpersonal relations (1958).

1921 — 2003  Thibaut & Kelley — Social exchange and interpersonal relationships (1959)

1928 —            Noam ChomskyA Review of Skinner’s Verbal Behavior (1959)

1920 —            Deutch & Krauss — Exchange theory and Interpersonal bargaining (1960)

1903 — 1981  Rensis LikertOrganisations are collections of groups rather than individual entities(1961).

1933 — 1984  Stanley Milgram Study of Destructive Obedience (1963). Six degrees of separation.

1922 — 1982  Erving Goffman— Symbolic interation

1928 —            Howard Becker Outsiders (1963)

1917 —  2011 Harold Garfinkel —  Ethnomethodology

1897 — 1990  Norbert Elias — Civilising and Decivilising processes

1925 — 2002  William Schutz — Iinclusion, control and affection (1958, 1966)

1897 — 1979  Wilfred Bion — Group Dynamics (1961) and psychoanalysis influences: Wilfred Trotter, Ernest Jones

1938 —            Bruce Tuckman — Tuckman’s stages of group development (1965)

1923 — 2008  Robert ZajoncSocial facilitation of dominant and subordinate responses (1966)

1928 — 2012  Ulric Neisser Cognitive psychology (1967)

1947 —            Abelson et. al.— Cognitive consistency (1968)

1927 — 1993  Jones &Davis —  Attribution theory (1965)

1929 —             Darley & Latane — Prosocial behaviour (1968)

1952 —             Fiske & Taylor — Naive scientist model

1916 — 1962  C. Wright Mills — Sociological imagination (1970)

1919 — 1982  Henri Tajfel — Group categorisation was enough to produce intergroup discrimination(1971)

1929 —            Jurgen Habermans — Communicative rationality

1933 —             Philip Zimbardo — Stanford Prison experiments (1971) — Deindivualisation

1926 — 1984   Michael Foucault

1926 — 1984   M. Scott PeckCommunity stages

1927 — 1993   Jones & Goethals — Primacy effect and Recency effect (1973)

1927 —             Serge Moscovici Introduction a la psychologie sociale (1973) — social representations. (1961).

1925 —             Albert Bandura — Social Learning Theory (1977). Social Foundations of Thought and Action (1986)

1947 —             Theda SkocpolStates and Social Revolutions (1947)

1919 — 1982  Tajfel & Fraser — Introducing Social psychology (1978)

1919 — 1982  Tajfel & Turner — Social Identity Theory (1979)

1941 —             Nisbett & Ross — Cognitive misers

1930 — 2002  Pierre Bourdieu — “Social Capital”

1930 —             Immanuel Wallerstein The modern world system

1929 — 2007  Jean Baudrillard The Consumer Society (1970)

1926 — 1993  Donald BroadbentInformation processing (1985). Filter model of attention.

1936 — 2005  M. Scott PeckThe Different Drum: Community-Making and Peace (1987).

1952 —             Fiske & Taylor — Motivated Tactition (1991)

1938 —             Anthony Giddens

1944 —             Ulrich Beck — Risk society

1925 —             Zygmunt BaumanSocial stratification

1947 —             Robin Dunbar — Dunbar’s Number (1992).

                            J.R. Katzenbach & Smith  —The Wisdom of Teams (1993)  Transition from group to team

1926 —             R. Meredith Belbin The coming shape of organisation (1996).  Belbin’s Nine team roles

1913 — 2001   Burns & Stalker —  Mechanistic vs Organic organisation (1996).

1926 —             R. Meredith Belbin —  Beyond the team (2000). 6 differences between a team and group

1942 —             Manuel CastellsThe Rise of the Networked Society (1996)

Martin, Suls, & Wheeler — Psychology of Social Comparison (2001).

Donelson Forsyth Group Dynamics (2006)

Aaron V. Cicourel  Cognitive Sociology (1974)

Harmon-Jones & Winkleman — Social Neuroscience (2007) 

1909 — 2005    Peter Drucker Father of modern management

1909 — 1993    Fred Emery & Eric Trist — Topology of organisational environments

1943 —              Mark Granovetter The Strength of weak ties (1973)

 

 

 

References

  1. Plato., The Republic, 360 BCE.
  2. Khaldun, Ibn., Muqaddimah ,378.
  3. Machiavelli, Niccolo., The Prince,1515.
  4. Ferguson, Adam., An Essay on the History of Civil Society, 1767.
  5. Zajonc, Robert B. & Sales, Stephen M., Social Facilitation of Dominant and Subordinate Responses, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 2, 1966. pp 160-168
  6. Belbin, R Meredith., Beyond The Team, Butterworth Heinemann, 2000.
Granovetter, Mark S., The Strength of Weak Ties, The Americal Journal of Sociology, Vol. 78, No.6., pp 1360-1380, May 1973.

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